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Premier Green Energy (PGE) delivers an advanced pyrolysis system that facilitates efficient and effective management of waste and resources by converting them into sustainable heat and power.Foreword


The global economy has witnessed a combination of a credit-fuelled financial crisis, accelerating climate change, and the looming peak and decline in oil production. Together with these events, global waste management has created challenges for all countries, to be environmentally-responsible, energy efficient, and technologically aware in respect of the processing of waste. The challenges weigh more heavily in particular regions due to the uneconomic scale, uneven spread of waste volumes, and long transportation distances involved. Technology policy lies at the core of these challenges. Global spatial development stresses the need for economic diversification in rural areas through strategies based on local resources.

There is a need for technological solutions that can cope with the constraints of resources availability and, at the same time, be able to decouple growth from environmental degradation. There are vast and immediate opportunities in the Renewable Energy and Energy from Waste sectors which contribute to the achievement of global policy targets and also offer excellent opportunities for decentralised business innovation. Small-scale biomass and waste based energy solutions are able to answer the challenges of resource availability, while progressively reducing the impact of human activities on the environment.

Premier Green Energy owns the exclusive rights to design, build, distribute, and operate advance thermal processing equipment which is fully patented. The technology facilitates the production of sustainable energy combined with an environmentally friendly solution for waste management and resource recovery across small, medium and large scales. The technology works in conjunction with existing waste, energy and recycling infrastructure and does not require excessive capital input.

Brief Profile of Premier Green Energy

PGE is the provider of this leading edge technology to the waste management and biomass sectors. The core activities include build, supply and commissioning of the PRIMA 3000 pyrolysis unit, together with the provision of ancillary equipment including; gas engine(s), heat recovery system(s), gas scrubbing, emissions monitoring system(s), and pre-treatment and fuel transfer mechanism(s). PGE can offer a complete or partial solution to private waste operators, local authorities and large consuming energy industries.


Advanced thermal treatment (ATT) technologies are all those technologies applied to the processing of waste streams and biofuels, whose ultimate objective is energy conversion from waste streams. Fuels can comprise of a multiplicity of waste, including household, industrial, commercial, construction and demolition wastes. It also includes garden and food processing wastes, tyres, chicken litter and many more. Feedstock can, in general, be thought of as all those wastes that would previously have been sent to regulated landfill sites.
Advanced thermal treatment has undergone rapid technological development over the last 10 to 15 years. Much of this change has been driven by EU Directives, especially the Waste Incineration Directive (2000 76 EC) and implementation legislation specific to the waste management sector. Continual process development is ongoing, with the sector now developing advanced thermal treatment techniques such as pyrolysis that limits cost, whilst improving environmental performance. EU waste policy has encouraged a shift in mindset regarding waste from considering it as an unwanted burden to now viewing it as a valuable commodity. The primary focus is now on reforming waste to energy without generating any harmful emissions.
Main Stages of Advanced Thermal Treatment

In the process illustrated above, the energy content of the fuel feedstock or waste streams is recovered primarily in the form of syngas and heat that can subsequently be utilised for electrical power generation, or utilised for either local or district heating

Thermal Conversion

Three options, as illustrated herewith, are generally available to facilitate the recovery of energy from waste. PGE has chosen the option of pyrolysis as the most appropriate and cost effective technology.


Pyrolysis is a thermal treatment process that uses high temperatures, in the absence of added oxygen, to break down waste during which syngas and a solid char are formed. However, it is still classified as incineration in the European Union (EU)’s Waste Incineration Directive (WID) 2000/76/ EC, and has to meet the mandatory emissions limits that are outlined in that Directive.The general characteristics of pyrolysis of a waste stream are as follows:• Key products are syngas ( whose main combustible components are carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane and some longer chain hydrocarbons including condensable tars, waxes and oils) and a solid residue char (consisting of non-combustible material and a significant amount of carbon);• The general lack of oxidation, and lack of an added diluting gas, means that the net calorific value (NCV) of syngas from a pyrolysis process is likely to be higher than from a gasification process (provided substantial quantities of carbon are not left in the solid residues). Typical NCV of the gas produced is from 10 to 20 MJ/Nm3.Pyrolysis also offers the potential option of more innovative use of the pyrolysis syngas other than immediate combustion to produce heat. Pyrolysis generally takes place at lower temperatures than for incineration and gasification. The result is less volatilisation of carbon and certain other pollutants such as heavy metals and dioxin precursors into the gaseous stream. Ultimately, the flue gases will need less treatment to meet the emission limits of WID.The solid residues from the pyrolysis process can contain up to 40% carbon representing a significant proportion of the energy from the input waste. Recovery of the energy from this char is therefore critically important for energy efficiency.

The PGE pyrolysis process

The PGE pyrolysis process typically has three stages:• Heating the waste in an oxygen-free atmosphere to produce syngas, oils and char (carbon & ash).• ‘Scrubbing’ or cleaning the syngas to remove some of the particulates, hydrocarbons and soluble matter.• Using the scrubbed syngas to generate electricity and, in some cases, heat (through combined heat and power – CHP). There are different ways of generating the electricity from the scrubbed gas – via steam turbine, gas engine and, maybe some time in the future, hydrogen fuel cells.
PGE Simplified Process Flow

PGE Key Technology Benefits

• Highly Efficient – On an hourly basis, the PGE PRIMA 3000 is capable of generating 3 MW of electrical energy and 6 MW of thermal energy from 3 tonnes of waste. The electrical efficiency of the plant as a whole is very attractive and overall efficiency (electrical and thermal) even reaches values comparable to combined heat and power (CHP). The syngas produced is suitable for utilisation on many gas engine ranges which convert the chemical energy in the syngas into electrical energy and waste engine heat that can be recovered for drying or district heating purposes.
• Low Emissions – PGE’s advanced thermal treatment technology operates on the principle of pure pyrolysis, a thermal process in which organic materials in waste streams or energy crops are broken down in the absence of added oxygen. Due to the fact that excess oxygen is not added to the process, combustion does not occur and hence no environmentally harmful dioxins are produced. Furthermore, those emissions that are produced occur at a significantly lower level that through use of other comparable technologies. A typical installation will meet the Waste Incineration Directive (WID) (2000/76/EC) standard for emissions.
• Zero Waste – The process produces no waste effluent or ash that would require to be disposed to landfill. The PGE pure pyrolysis process is the only energy reforming technology that recycles and utilises the char produced to sustain the heat required for the pyrolysis process and thus enhances process efficiency. Any liquid effluent that arises from utilising the technology can be processed in the thermal oxidiser.
• Fuel Diversity – The plant can facilitate a multiplicity of fuel feedstocks, either individually or in blended form to convert efficiently into electrical and thermal energy. The range of treatable wastes include the following; municipal solid waste (MSW), commercial and industrial waste, forestry and agricultural wastes, organic crop residues and food processing waste, and sewage sludge and clinical waste. In additional, rubber tyres and energy crops such as willow and miscanthus are eminently suitable feedstocks.• Multiple Applications – The technology can be utilised as a power generation system, a waste disposal system, a torrefaction system, or a carbon process for fertiliser production or storage. In addition, the technology can be employed for biofuels generation.
• Large Capacity – The PRIMA 3000 operates in continuous mode and processes 3 tonnes per hour, which is equivalent to 25,000 tonnes per annum
• Low Operating Costs – The PGE pyrolysis system is a highly automated process that requires minimal manual intervention and manpower during approximately 8000 hours of annual, continuous operation.• Return on Capital Employed – The efficiency of the PGE PRIMA 3000 relative to all other conversion technologies currently available ensures the highest comparable return on capital invested.
• Gas Quality – PGE’s pyrolysis plant offers gas cleanliness, gas yields and gas quality at rates which suggests that this form of thermal treatment, once correctly operated and combined with adequate pre-treatment and engine type, can surpass all other forms of commercial thermal processing for achieving best available techniques (BAT).
• End of Waste – The purpose of the PGE plant is to generate a synthesis fuel gas that can be used in gas engines and generation sets for the purposes of generating clean renewable energy. The gas quality and GCV meets the requirements of Ofgem’s Synthesis Gas requirements and will enable the plant to qualify under the Renewables Obligation Order 2009. All gas being produced by the plant can be used directly as part of a close-coupled CHP scheme or be exported to a neighbouring third party for similar use. PGE’s advanced pyrolysation technology when operated as described in this application, successfully converts the waste material into a distinct and marketable product. PGE’s synthesis gas can be combusted conventionally in a number of commercially available gas engine types in the same manner as mains supplied gas. The combustion of synthesis gas is no more polluting that the combustion of mains gas in similar applications and thus meets the published definition of ‘End of Waste’.

Potential Beneficiaries of PGE Pyrolysis Technology

• High Energy Consumption Industries – Significant energy cost savings can be achieved by utilising PGE’s pyrolysis technology to generate the energy required from waste. Employing the technology can also achieve secondary benefits including the generation of lower CO2 emissions and enhanced fuel feedstock sustainability.
• Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Operators – Businesses in this sector can virtually eliminate the use of landfill sites for disposal purposes together with the punitive costs associated with this activity.• Industries with Agricultural and Biomass Wastes – Wood and wood waste, livestock and chicken litter, food processing waste, sewage and organic residues from crops are all suitable fuel feedstocks for renewable energy recovery.
• Institutions and Industries Generating Clinical or Hazardous Waste – The waste emanating from these can be utilised as fuel feedstock for electrical and thermal energy generation.
• Local Authorities – The utilisation of PGE’s pyrolysis technology provides a very cost effective alternative to landfill without the generation of environmentally harmful dioxin emissions. It will also underpin the nations drive to comply with the provisions of the Landfill Directive.

Feedstock Preparation

Feedstock should be pre-treated to ensure that recyclable material and inert substances are removed prior to thermal processing. Subsequently it will need to be shredded to the required particle size and dried to the optimum moisture content. The surplus waste heat from the gas engine or even the pyrolysis system will be sufficient to dry the feedstock through a rotary drum or double pass dryer. Once dried it can then be stored as a Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) in either silos or baled and wrapped for ease of stacking and inventory control.
Optimum Feedstock Characteristics
For utilisation in the PGE pyrolysis unit feedstock should, ideally, have the following specifications:

System Guarantee Parameters

System guarantee parameters encompass the following elements:• Gas Volume & Gas CV• Electrical Energy (Based on engine connectivity and efficiency)• Thermal Energyo Waste heat recovered from muffle furnaceo Waste heat recovered from engine exhausto Waste heat recovered from system radiators• Waste water discharge from gas scrubber system (Input to Thermal Oxidiser)• Emissions to the atmosphere• Solid residue• Parasitic loadThe system guarantee points are, in essence, determined by and subject to the received fuel quality as provided by the client. Assuming fuel quality is received according to our fuel specification, as previously outlined in this document, then the guarantee points for one tonne of Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) are as follows:

Financial Analysis based upon System Guarantee parameters

Supporting Information and Data Analysis


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